A Companion to Environmental Philosophy is a pioneering work in the burgeoning field of environmental philosophy. This ground-breaking volume contains thirty-six original articles exemplifying the rich diversity of scholarship in this field. Contains thirty-six original articles, written by international scholars. Traces the roots of environmental philosophy through the exploration of cultural traditions from around the world. Brings environmental philosophy into conversation with other fields and disciplines such as literature, economics, ecology, and law. Discusses environmental problems that stimulate current debates.
Though little known today, David Fordyce was one of the leading figures of the outburst of intellectual activity that culminated in the Scottish Enlightenment. His Elements of Moral Philosophy was one of the most widely circulated texts in moral philosophy in the second half of the eighteenth century. Apart from a very expensive facsimile edition, there has never been a modern edition of The Elements of Moral Philosophy. Moreover, the lectures in A Brief Account have never before been published. The significance of The Elements is evidenced by the fact that it was the principal work in the curriculum in moral philosophy throughout the second half of the eighteenth century. It was also included practically verbatim in the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Bioethics was “born in the USA” and the values American bioethics embrace are based on American law, including liberty and justice. This book crosses the borders between bioethics and law, but moves beyond the domestic law/bioethics struggles for dominance by exploring attempts to articulate universal principles based on international human rights. The isolationism of bioethics in the US is not tenable in the wake of scientific triumphs like decoding the human genome, and civilizational tragedies like international terrorism. Annas argues that by crossing boundaries which have artificially separated bioethics and health law from the international human rights movement, American bioethics can be reborn as a global force for good, instead of serving mainly the purposes of U.S. academics. This thesis is explored in a variety of international contexts such as terrorism and genetic engineering, and in U.S. domestic disputes such as patient rights and market medicine. The citizens of the world have created two universal codes: science has sequenced the human genome and the United Nations has produced the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The challenge for American bioethics is to combine these two great codes in imaginative and constructive ways to make the world a better, and healthier, place to live.
Must good deeds be rewarded and wrongdoers punished? Would God be unjust if He failed to punish and reward? And what is it about good or evil actions and moral identity that might generate such necessities? These were some of the vital religious and philosophical questions that eighth- and ninth-century Mu’tazilite theologians and their sophisticated successors attempted to answer, giving rise to a distinctive ethical position and one of the most prominent and controversial intellectual trends in medieval Islam. The Mu’tazilites developed a view of ethics whose distinguishing features were its austere moral objectivism and the crucial role it assigned to reason in the knowledge of moral truths. Central to this ethical vision was the notion of moral desert, and of the good and evil consequences–reward or punishment–deserved through a person’s acts. Moral Agents and Their Desertsis the first book-length study of this central theme in Mu’tazilite ethics, and an attempt to grapple with the philosophical questions it raises. At the same time, it is a bid to question the ways in which modern readers, coming to medieval Islamic thought with a philosophical interest, seek to read and converse with Mu’tazilite theology.Moral Agents and Their Desertstracks the challenges and rewards involved in the pursuit of the right conversation at the seams between modern and medieval concerns.